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商業 - 科技

什么是Libra,有什么用?

如果這種新的數字貨幣流行起來,有可能會改變人們儲蓄、消費和轉賬的方式,或將給科技和銀行業帶來重大顛覆。

經過數月猜測,Facebook終于在周二上午宣布了新加密貨幣的細節。這種數字貨幣名為“Libra”,明年開始向Messenger、WhatsApp和Instagram等Facebook服務的數十億用戶提供。

如果這種新的數字貨幣流行起來,有可能會改變人們儲蓄、消費和轉賬的方式,或將給科技和銀行業帶來重大顛覆。

以下是有關Libra的一些問題及解答,以及對普通人意味著什么。

Facebook的Libra加密貨幣的意義何在?

如果公司和用戶接受,Libra可以變成更方便的在線支付方式。Facebook很可能計劃在Instagram和WhatsApp上出售產品,但其他網站也可能將該加密貨幣用于電子商務。

除了電子商務之外,Libra還能夠被用作儲值和匯款手段,而且無需支付高額費用,尤其對缺少銀行基礎設施的發展中國家人民來說用處更大。因此如果想把錢匯到另一個國家,與現有的匯款方式相比,用Libra可能更廉價。

Facebook的Libra和比特幣有關系嗎?

Libra的交易會記錄在區塊鏈上,區塊鏈是多臺計算機上運行的防篡改賬簿,比特幣和其他加密貨幣使用的也是該項技術。所以,確有相似之處,比如資金轉移和創建安全的交易記錄都很便捷等。

但兩者也有一些重要的不同之處。舉例來說,Libra的價格比比特幣更穩定,因為Libra背后有儲備基金提供支持,而比特幣的價格會隨意浮動。

此外,比特幣被記錄在公共區塊鏈上,任何人都可以在區塊鏈上開發。另一方面,如果有開發者想在Libra的區塊鏈上開發功能,必須先向Facebook以及負責管理Libra的合作伙伴申請。

隱私問題呢?Facebook會知道我的交易記錄嗎?

看具體情況。Facebook將成立一家獨立公司運作新的Calibra數字錢包應用,并承諾除非獲得允許,否則不會把通過該應用收集的用戶數據共享給Facebook和Instagram等其他應用。因此從理論上來說,只有Calibra才會知道交易記錄。但許多Calibra的用戶可能會使用應用里整合的查找Facebook好友功能,這樣一來數據就會被合并。

Libra可以存入其他公司開發的數字錢包應用,從而加強隱私保護。

Libra值多少錢?

Facebook及其合作伙伴將用真實世界中的資金為Libra提供支持,向用戶承諾該數字貨幣可以換到現金。Libra以三條波浪線為貨幣符號,每日價格錨定美元、英國英鎊、歐元和瑞士法郎組成的一籃子貨幣平均價格。

Calibra 數字錢包會顯示用戶擁有多少Libra,以及按本幣計算的實際價值是多少(下圖以墨西哥比索為例):

After months of speculation, Facebook finally announced details about its new cryptocurrency on Tuesday morning. The digital currency, called Libra, will be available starting next year to the billions of people who use Facebook services like Messenger, WhatsApp, and Instagram.

If the new currency catches on, it has the potential to change how people save, spend, and send money, and could disrupt big parts of the tech and banking industries.

Here is a Q&A about Libra, and what it means for you.

What’s the point of Facebook’s Libra cryptocurrency?

If adopted by companies and users, Libra can become a more convenient way to pay online. Facebook likely plans to sell products on Instagram and WhatsApp, but other websites could also use the cryptocurrency for e-commerce.

But beyond e-commerce, especially for people in developing countries that lack a banking infrastructure, Libra could be useful for storing and transferring money, without paying high fees. So, if you want to send money to another country, Libra may be a cheaper way to do it than what’s currently available.

Does Facebook’s Libra have anything to do with Bitcoin?

Libra transactions will be recorded on a blockchain—a tamper-proof ledger that runs across multiple computers. This is the same technology that Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies are built on. So, yes, there are some similarities, including the ease of moving money and creating secure transaction records.

But there are also key differences. For instance, the price of Libra is more stable than Bitcoin, since Libra is backed by a reserve fund, while the value of Bitcoin just floats.

Also, Bitcoin is recorded on a public blockchain that allows anyone to build on it. On the other hand, to build on many features of Libra’s blockchain, developers must seek permission from Facebook and its partners who administer it.

What about privacy? Will Facebook know what I’m spending?

That depends. Facebook is setting up its new Calibra wallet as a separate company, and is promising not to combine user data with its other apps, like Facebook and Instagram—unless you give it permission. So, in theory, only Calibra will have a record of your transactions. But many Calibra users may decide to use its integrated Facebook friend-finding feature, and if they do, their data will be combined.

Libra may be stored in competing digital wallet apps built by other companies that provide higher levels of privacy.

How much are Libra worth?

Facebook and its partners are backing Libra with a pool of real world money, promising users that they will always be able to trade the cryptocurrency in for cash. The day-to-day value of Libra, which uses the monetary symbol of three waves, is pegged to the average value of a basket of world currencies, made up of U.S. dollars, U.K. pounds, euros, and Swiss francs.

Calibra’s wallet shows how many Libra users have, as well as their value is in the local currency (in this case Mexican pesos):

怎么才能使用Libra?

還要等上一段時間才行,因為Facebook表示要到2020年中期才會推出,屆時用戶可以下載Calibra并關聯銀行賬戶來進行購買,Calibra的實際使用方式很像Venmo。

需要指出的重要一點是,Facebook 的Calibra并非購買和消費Libra的唯一途徑。Facebook已經與PayPal和Coinbase等數十家公司達成合作,預計多家合作伙伴都將開發自己的數字錢包。以下圖表列出了所有的初始合作伙伴:

How do I get my hands on some Libra?

You’ll have to wait awhile as Facebook says the new digital money will only be ready by mid-2020. When it’s ready, users can download Calibra—which will work a lot like Venmo—and buy some by connecting your bank account.

It’s important to note that Facebook’s Calibra is not the only option for obtaining and spending Libra. Facebook is working with dozens of partners, including PayPal and Coinbase, many of which are expected to build digital wallets of their own. Here is a diagram that shows all of the initial partners:

各家公司都將允許用戶兌現Libra,未來幾個月中預計還將有很多公司加入。

此外,當Facebook在2020年中期實際出Libra時,很可能還會向用戶少量贈送以做推廣。(財富中文網)

譯者:艾倫

審校:夏林

All of these companies will also let users convert Libra into regular cash, and many other companies are expected to join the coming months.

In addition, there is a very good chance Facebook will give away some small amounts of Libra to its users to promote the currency when it launches in mid-2020.

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