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這些“優秀人才”都已退出特朗普經濟團隊

Rey Mashayekhi 2019年06月20日

在特朗普宣誓就職至今的兩年半里,至少有50名高官離開了他,有些人主動辭職,另一些人則被粗暴趕走。

今年6月初,經濟顧問委員會主席凱文·哈塞特(右二)宣布從特朗普政府離職。圖片來源:Mark Wilson/Getty Images

現在看起來,特朗普政府的人員更替跟現代歷史上其他屆政府都不太一樣。在他宣誓就職至今的兩年半里,至少有50名高官離開了“特朗普世界”,從西翼的行政辦公人員到內閣秘書均有離職。有些人主動辭職,另一些人則被粗暴趕走。

今年6月初,又一位曾經被特朗普高調任命的高官走出了賓夕法尼亞大道1600號的白宮大門,這次是總統經濟顧問委員會主席凱文·哈塞特。他曾經在保守派領先智庫美國企業政策研究所(American Enterprise Institute)擔任主任,畢生致力于研究稅收政策。他在特朗普政府任首席經濟學家期間倡導給企業減稅,構成了2017年《減稅和就業法案》的主要內容,而該法案可以說是迄今為止特朗普在立法方面最重大的成就。

但與特朗普不同的是,哈塞特在貿易問題上持有更正統的自由市場觀點,因此與特朗普政府的立場并不一致,特朗普政府先是采取貿易保護主義政策,對中國大幅提升關稅,最近又對墨西哥提升關稅。盡管如此,哈塞特還是向《紐約時報》(New York Times)表示,自己離職與政府“政策分歧無關”。

以下是在哈塞特之前離開白宮的特朗普經濟智囊團成員(按離開的順序排序)以及現在從事的崗位。

保羅·溫弗里

國內政策委員會副主任/預算政策主任(2017年12月辭職)

跟哈塞特一樣,溫弗里也是從華盛頓著名的保守派智囊團進入政府,之前擔任傳統基金會(Heritage Foundation)的主任。這位財政政策學者在特朗普政府制定第一份預算提案時發揮了重要作用,當時他與管理和預算辦公室的主任米克·穆爾瓦尼(現任代理白宮幕僚長)合作。

上任不到一年,溫弗里就離開了白宮,回到傳統基金會主任的崗位上。他的離職比較友好,上個月還有報道稱,特朗普在提名斯蒂芬·摩爾和赫爾曼·凱恩出任美聯儲理事會成員失敗以后,可能會提名溫弗里。

杰里米·卡茨

國家經濟委員會副主任(2018年1月辭職)

卡茨曾經是國家經濟委員會前主任加里·科恩(下文將介紹)的副手,在起草和推進特朗普政府稅收改革法案方面發揮過關鍵作用,該法案于2017年年底正式通過。此后不久,卡茨于2018年1月辭職,此前有報道稱他向來計劃在政府任職不超過一年。他離開過程也比較平和,當時科恩稱他是“研究和執行總統經濟議程的寶貴伙伴”。

迪娜·鮑威爾

經濟倡議高級顧問/國家安全副顧問(2018年1月辭職)

鮑威爾在高盛集團(Goldman Sachs)當過高管,曾經是特朗普政府中級別最高的女性之一。剛加入新政府時她擔任高級經濟顧問,工作重點是“創業、經濟增長和為婦女賦能”,與伊萬卡·特朗普密切合作。2017年3月,時任國家安全顧問的麥克馬斯特任命鮑威爾為副手之一,她還繼續擔任經濟顧問,并兼任外交政策顧問,頗有影響力。

與卡茨一樣,鮑威爾也原本就計劃在政府中任職不超過一年。她在2018年1月辭職,回到紐約重新加入高盛。她離開白宮時也并無不睦,去年尼基·黑利辭職后很多人認為她是美國駐聯合國大使的候選人,但最終她自己決定不予考慮。

加里·科恩

國家經濟委員會主任(2018年3月辭職)

雖然哈塞特曾經是特朗普的首席經濟學家,但曾經擔任高盛總裁兼首席運營官的科恩則是特朗普最為倚重的首席經濟顧問,在政府經濟政策幾乎每個方面都發揮過關鍵作用。為了出任該職,科恩放棄了接替勞埃德·貝蘭克梵出任高盛首席執行官的大好機會(最終科恩的繼任者大衛·所羅門成功上位,去年10月接替了貝蘭克梵)。

在科恩的主持之下,美國經濟強勁擴張,但他在白宮任職的經歷卻很坎坷。從一開始,他就被視為政府“全球主義者”派系的關鍵人物,與史蒂夫·班農和斯蒂芬·米勒等顧問代表的白宮“民粹主義”派系展開了正面交鋒。在特朗普發表爭議言論,將弗吉尼亞州夏洛茨維爾白人至上主義集會上爆發的暴力事件歸咎于“雙方”之后,一度有傳聞稱科恩考慮在2017年8月辭職。

7個月后,在特朗普決定對進口鋼鋁全面征收關稅,科恩終于宣布辭職。對鋼鋁開征關稅是美國政府日趨保護主義貿易立場的第一步,而目前中美兩國之間的貿易戰正在不斷升級。科恩的接任者為拉里·庫德洛,哈佛大學約翰·肯尼迪政府學院政治研究所的訪問研究員。

埃弗雷特·艾森斯塔特

國家經濟委員會副主任/主管國際經濟事務的總統副助理(2018年7月辭職)

艾森斯塔特曾經是特朗普在貿易相關事務上的高級助理之一,他曾經在G7、G20和亞太經合組織峰會等會議上代表總統。盡管艾森斯塔特在政府日益轉向保護主義之際不斷發聲支持貿易,不過報道稱去年他離職是出于“家庭原因”。之后,他加入通用汽車(General Motors),擔任全球公共政策高級副總裁,負責通用汽車在華盛頓的游說工作,直接向該公司的董事長兼首席執行官瑪麗·巴拉匯報。

克利特·威勒姆斯

國家經濟委員會副主任/主管國際經濟事務的總統副助理(2019年3月辭職)

威勒姆斯曾經是特朗普政府的另一位高級貿易顧問,去年夏天獲得擢升,接替艾森斯塔特的職務。8個月后,威勒姆斯也決定離開,辭去中美兩國主要貿易談判代表的職務,加入艾金·崗波律師事務所,負責公共法律和政策實踐事務。雖然威勒姆斯在中美雙方貿易談判日益激烈的當口上離職,但白宮方面表示,他辭去公職是想要有更多時間與家人團聚。

琳達·麥克馬洪

小企業管理局局長(2019年4月辭職)

琳達·麥克馬洪曾經跟丈夫文斯一起,將美國職業摔角WWE打造成了職業摔角界的杰出企業。特朗普總統跟麥克馬洪一家是朋友,還曾經在美國職業摔跤當過上鏡名人,他在當選以后任命麥克馬洪為小企業管理局局長。今年春天,她在任職兩年多后宣布辭職,在總統連任競選即將到來之際擔任親特朗普的超級政治行動委員會主席。(財富中文網)

譯者:艾倫

審校:夏林

At this point, it’s well-documented that the Trump White House has seen a level of turnover unlike any other administration in modern times. At this point, no less than 50 top officials—from West Wing staffers to cabinet secretaries—have left Trumpworld in the two-and-a-half years since the President took the oath of office. Some departed on their own volition; others, for one reason or another, were unceremoniously forced out.

In the beginning of June, another high-profile appointee walk out the doors of 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue: Kevin Hassett, the chairman of the President’s Council of Economic Advisers. As the administration’s top economist, Hassett—a career tax policy wonk and former director at the American Enterprise Institute, a leading conservative think tank—advocated for the corporate tax cuts that comprised the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, arguably Trump’s most significant legislative achievement to date.

Yet unlike the President, Hassett also holds more orthodox, free-market views on trade—a position that put him at odds with the Trump administration’s protectionist, tariff-heavy trade stance toward China and, more recently, Mexico. Despite that, Hassett told The New York Times that his departure has “nothing to do with any policy disagreements” within the administration.

Here are the members of Trump’s economic braintrust who preceded Hassett in leaving (in the order of their departure) and where they are now.

Paul Winfree

Deputy Director of Domestic Policy Council / Director of Budget Policy (Resigned, December 2017)

Like Hassett, Winfree also came to the administration from a prominent D.C.-based conservative think tank—in his case, the Heritage Foundation, where he served as a director. The fiscal policy wonk played an important role in crafting the administration’s first budget proposal, working alongside Office of Management and Budget director (and now-acting White House chief of staff) Mick Mulvaney.

Winfree left the White House after less than a year to return to his director gig at the Heritage Foundation. He did so amicably—as evidenced by reports last month that President Trump could nominate him to the Federal Reserve’s board of governors, in the wake of the failed nominations of Stephen Moore and Herman Cain.

Jeremy Katz

Deputy Director of National Economic Council (Resigned, January 2018)

Katz was deputy to former National Economic Council director Gary Cohn (more on him soon) and played a key role in crafting and pushing through the Trump administration’s tax reform bill, which was signed into law at the end of 2017. Katz resigned from his post shortly thereafter in January 2018, having reportedly always planned to stay in the administration for no more than one year. He departed on good terms, with Cohn describing him as “an invaluable partner in the development and execution of the President’s economic agenda.”

Dina Powell

Senior Counselor for Economic Initiatives / Deputy National Security Adviser (Resigned, January 2018)

The former Goldman Sachs executive was one of the highest-ranking women in Trump’s White House, initially joining the new administration as a senior economic adviser focused on “entrepreneurship, economic growth, and the empowerment of women”—a role in which she worked closely with Ivanka Trump. In March 2017, then-National Security Adviser H.R. McMaster named Powell as one of his deputies, with Powell continuing in her economic adviser role while also pulling double-duty as an influential foreign policy adviser.

Like Katz, Powell supposedly also planned to serve no more than one year in the administration—resigning in January 2018, returning to her home in New York and rejoining Goldman Sachs. She also left the White House on good terms, and was widely mentioned as a candidate for U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations after Nikki Haley’s resignation last year; Powell eventually withdrew herself from consideration.

Gary Cohn

Director of National Economic Council (Resigned, March 2018)

Hassett may have been Trump’s top economist, but the former Goldman Sachs president and COO was the President’s top economic advisor and played a crucial role in virtually every aspect of the administration’s economic policy. For the privilege of doing so, Cohn gave up what many considered to be a good shot at replacing Lloyd Blankfein as Goldman’s CEO (the job eventually went to Cohn’s replacement, David Solomon, who succeeded Blankfein last October).

Despite presiding over a robust, expanding economy, Cohn’s tenure in the White House was a rocky one. From the outset, he was cast as a key player in the establishment, “globalist” faction of the administration, which butted heads with the “populist” wing of the White House embodied by the likes of advisers Steve Bannon and Stephen Miller. Cohn was rumored to be considering his resignation in August 2017, after Trump’s controversial statements blaming “both sides” for the violence that broke out at that month’s white supremacist rally in Charlottesville, Va.

He eventually announced his resignation seven months later, in the wake of the President’s decision to impose sweeping tariffs on steel and aluminum imports—one of the first steps in the administration’s increasingly protectionist trade stance, now embodied by its escalating trade war with China. Cohn was replaced by Larry Kudlow and is now a visiting fellow at the Institute of Politics at Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government.

Everett Eissenstat

Deputy Director of National Economic Council / Deputy Assistant to the President for International Economic Affairs (Resigned, July 2018)

Eissenstat was one of Trump’s top aides on trade-related matters and represented the President at the likes of the G7, G20 and APEC summits. Despite being a pro-trade voice amid the administration’s shift toward more protectionist policies, Eissenstat’s departure last year was reportedly motivated by “family reasons.” He’s since joined General Motors as senior vice president of global public policy, leading the automaker’s D.C. lobbying efforts and reporting directly to GM chair and CEO Mary Barra.

Clete Willems

Deputy Director of National Economic Council / Deputy Assistant to the President for International Economic Affairs (Resigned, March 2019)

Another of the administration’s top trade advisers, Willems was promoted to the departing Eissenstat’s job last summer. Eight months later, Willems himself was on the way out—exiting a role as one of the White House’s lead trade negotiators with China to join law firm Akin Gump’s public law and policy practice. Despite Willems’ departing amid increasingly contentious trade talks with Beijing, the White House said his pivot to the private sector was motivated by a desire to spend more time with his family.

Linda McMahon

Head of Small Business Administration (Resigned, April 2019)

Alongside her husband Vince, Linda McMahon helped built World Wrestling Entertainment into the preeminent enterprise in the world of professional wrestling. After his election, President Trump—a friend of the McMahons, and himself a former WWE on-screen personality—appointed McMahon to lead the Small Business Administration. This spring, she announced her resignation after more than two years on the job, stepping down to chair a pro-Trump super PAC ahead of the President’s reelection campaign.

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